GUATEMALA CHILD LABOR BASELINE / IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Terms of Reference
Guatemala Child Labor Baseline / impact assessment
The Rainforest Alliance has partnered with Peet’s Coffee, Mercon B.V., Mercon Guatemala and Fundacion Semillas para el Progreso (Seeds for Progress Foundation) in Guatemala to implement a project, Child labour risk factors profiling and mitigation plans in coffee supply chains in Huehuetenango (Guatemala), which has been awarded funding from the Dutch Government Agency RVO, Fund to Eradicate Child Labour.
The RvO fund requires all applicants to first complete local impact research, which includes in-depth research into child labor on site and within the business or businesses. This is referred to as Project A. The local impact research will be carried out in 7 coffee-producing municipalities including, Jacaltenango, San Antonio Huista, La Democracia, Concepción Huista, Petatán, Todos Santos Cuchumatán, Unión Cantinil in the Department of Huehuetenango, Guatemala. For each municipality, the community with the highest number of RA certified producers has been pre-selected. The final selection of target communities will be validated through research conducted under Result 1, and include independent or non-affiliated smallholder farmers.
Project A includes 5 result areas:
- Stakeholder mapping and analysis conducted using a participatory approach and validation of findings.
- Study on profile of target communities to assess the degree of child labour risks and frequency using the FBK mandatory indicators and other project specific indicators.
- Identification of root causes of child labour, and of the impact that child labour has on children, with special attention given to how these root causes relate to (commercial) practices in the coffee sector.
- Identification of company measures to prevent and mitigate child labour.
- Drafting project B for the implementation of intervention activities to address child labor risks and root causes of child labor.
Rainforest Alliance and its partners are therefore looking to contract a consultancy firm / consultant to implement Project A – details of the requirements for the research can be found below.
Project A: Result areas
Below is a description of the 5 project areas for the local impact research. The applying consultancy is asked to list and briefly describe the activities (and means of verification) envisioned per result area in order to collect high quality and accurate data.
Result 1: Stakeholder mapping and analysis conducted using a participatory approach and validation of findings.
Under result 1, the consultant is expected to carry out a stakeholder analysis and mapping using a participatory approach. This will involve identifying key stakeholders and affected persons/groups (including children) in the Department of Huehuetenango and in target communities that are involved in the coffee sector and those that can have an impact on and/or are affected by the occurrence/risks of child labour in the Department. The stakeholder mapping and analysis will identify stakeholders’ relation to the root causes, willingness to participate in the baseline study and potential resistance. This study will also map existing services provided by some of these actors and analyse its effectiveness, as well as evaluating gaps and opportunities in public policy and programs to address child labour.
Sub-results & Activities
1.2 Desk research findings and tools drafted
1.2.1 Conduct study of existing literature and summary of key findings focused on Huehuetenango Department and municipalities included in the project (disaggregating data by gender and age where available). Note: this study will also map existing services and analyse its effectiveness, as well as evaluating gaps and opportunities in public policy and programs.
1.2.2 Adapt research tools to the local context in Huehuetenango, building on existing tools developed for FBK projects in Uganda and Vietnam.
1.3 Stakeholders mapped and research tools tested
1.3.1 Map relevant Huehuetenango's stakeholders to identify their main scopes around child labor and interest to participate in the project's surveys in Huehuetenango. Note: stakeholders include but are not limited to participating farms in Mercon's supply chain, local government institutions, coffee sector actors (Anacafe and Funcafe), community-based organisations, teachers, parents, children, institutions focused on child labor and gender, local businesses, labour unions, non-governmental organisations and research institutes. Potential resistance from stakeholders will also be assessed.
1.3.2 Map relevant stakeholders in selected communities to identify their main scopes around child labor and interest to participate in the project's surveys. Note: stakeholders include but are not limited to participating farms in Mercon's supply chain, community-based organisations, teachers, parents, children. Stakeholder mapping will also involve profiling of farmers depending on the type of supply chain connecting them to the market (coop, intermediary with traceability, intermediary without traceability, estate).
1.3.3 Pilot research tools through initial Household (HH) surveys, Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) to test research tools and further define sample area to participate in the baseline study. Note: to ensure participation of indigenous communities a translator will support the consultant when conducting KIIs and FGDs.
1.4 Research tools finalised
1.4.1 Refine the research tools developed under 1.2.2 - the questionnaires for the household surveys, KIIs, and FGDs - based on pilot results in 1.3.3
Result 2: Study on profile of target communities to assess the degree of child labour risks and frequency using the FBK mandatory indicators and other project specific indicators.
Under Results 2 and 3, the team will take a landscape approach to assess the situation in target coffee-producing communities in Huehuetenango, which will involve conducting research on labour issues, income, prices, productivity, types of farmers, etc. Special attention will be given to vulnerable groups such as migrant workers from other regions and their children. Interviewing migrant families and workers is critical and may involve moving to key migrant origins following the initial assessment to interview migrant families to find out migrant routes and other crops/areas they work in along the way.
Result 2 will focus on collecting data that will allow the project to develop a profile of target communities and establish baseline values for FBK mandatory indicators and other project specific indicators through household surveys, KIIs and FGDs with farming families as well as labourers either on-site or off-site, with teachers and through reviewing statistics from the agencies of the Ministry of Education.
The project team will collect baseline data on:
- The prevalence and characteristics of child labour on farm (both migrant and family child labour), as well as general migrant labour;
- The age and gender of children involved in child labour;
- Type and conditions of work children are involved in, including number of working hours per week/day, broken down by age and gender;
- Dangers of the tasks and impacts of child labour on children’s health and education;
- Seasonal labour demand and contracts to distinguish different types of labour throughout the year, in the fields;
- Origin of labourers (communities, nearby, far away), hiring patterns and employment/recruitment relations & migration patterns;
- Local companies’ employment and risk management systems;
- School enrollment and attendance of both farmers’ and labourers’ children;
- % contribution of coffee sales to household income;
- Household income and costs, including education costs;
- Migrant labourers’ income and costs, including education costs;
- Gender dimensions in family decision making and the impact this has on child labour, school attendance, farming and other income decisions;
- Existence of communal income streams (e.g. Village Savings and Loan Association - VSLA, remittances, etc.);
- Coffee quality and price;
- Farm productivity.
Sub-results & Activities
2.1 Baseline data collected from households
2.1.1 The consultant will conduct household surveys, KIIs with community leaders and farm managers, to establish a baseline for FBK mandatory indicators and other project indicators listed below. If relevant, surveys will also be conducted on the incidence of child labour in the communities from which farm labourers originate, as root causes may be identified at this level.
2.2 Baseline data collected from schools
2.2.2 The consultant will conduct KIIs with head teachers and review statistics from the Ministry of Education agencies to collect quantitative and qualitative data on school attendance, attainment and progression to better understand the # and % of children in school, the availability of schools in target communities (# of schools in a particular community), the relevance and quality of education they are accessing, as well as map the geospatial point for each school and farm. Where relevant, data on non-formal education will be collected and analysed.
- # and % of children aged 5-17 (included) engaged in child labour within geographical unit of the project, by gender, ethnic group, age group (5-12 & 13-17)
- # and % of children that face a risk of being engaged in child labour, by gender and age group. This will be computed from the above data, classified in different risk categories and definitions of risk
- # and % of children engaged in the different types of work identified
- # and % of children enrolled in school
- # and % of children attending school
- # and % of children enrolled in formal/non-formal education and training, by sex and age
This will be computed from the above data, classified in different risk categories and definitions of risk
Result 3: Identification of root causes of child labour, and of the impact that child labour has on children, with special attention given to how these root causes relate to (commercial) practices in the coffee sector.
Based on findings from the review of existing literature and consultations under Result 1 and data collected under Result 2, working with the consultant we will conduct KIIs and FGDs with children (in and out of school), youth, parents, teachers, coffee traders/companies, women leaders, coffee farmers, (migrant) workers, community leaders, and local government to gain in-depth knowledge of root causes of child labour and of the impact that child labour has on children. In addition to identifying root causes, we will do a rapid household income analysis in project areas and develop a diagram of ultimate causes. Special attention will be given to how these root causes relate to (commercial) practices in the coffee sector. This will include an evaluation of the impact of coffee prices, coffee quality, productivity and quality improvements and other income generating activities on increasing household income in project areas in Huehuetenango.
To facilitate this analysis, questionnaires for household surveys and KIIs conducted under Results 1 and 2, as well as questionnaires for the KIIs and FGDs conducted under Result 3 will incorporate questions about proxy and ultimate causes of child labour. For instance, if child labour exists in the coffee value chain, this could be related to poverty, access to education (including language of instruction), lack of employment in the region and negotiating powers of labourers when working as day labourers.
Sub-results & Activities
3.1 Root causes of child labour researched with key stakeholders
3.1.1 The consultant will conduct KIIs and FGDs with children (in and out of school), youth, parents, teachers, coffee traders/companies, women leaders, coffee farmers, (migrant) workers, community leaders, and local government, to collect qualitative data on practices, attitudes and knowledge about child labour, including their understanding of root causes and impact of child labour on children’s lives and rights and the different experiences of boys and girls. This will also look at patterns of inclusion/exclusion of migrant families with regards to education and decent work.
These FGDs and KIIs will allow stakeholders and affected persons/groups to discuss in a safe environment the following issues:
- Their role in relation to child labour;
- Specific group(s) at risk of child labour, including their ethnic group, education and employment status;
- Identified cases of child labour in the coffee value chain, specifying the production phase in which children have been seen to engage in child labour;
- Different contexts of coffee production;
- Root causes of child labour and what works to tackle these root causes;
- Any issues with the education system;
- Alternative opportunities for youth;
- Management systems or policies to address child labour; and
- Any other relevant issues that came up in the literature study.
2 2.2 3.2 Root causes of child labour & link with Guatemala's coffee sector practices analysed
3.2.1 The consultant will evaluate the potential impact of purchasing practices, coffee prices and quality improvements on household income and wages as part of the assessment of the best strategies for coffee companies to tackle child labour. Note: this will be based on the data and information collected through desk research, HH surveys, KIIs, FGDs under 1.2.1, 2.1.1, 3.1.1
3.3 Child labour risks in the supply chain of participating companies identified
3.3.1 The consultant will conduct a document review of Mercon B.V. available information to manage and reduce child labour, including its supply and market chains' available documents.
3.3.2 The consultant will conduct an analysis of vulnerability and participation of children in the coffee harvest season (November 2022-February 2023) in farms, and its supply and market chains.
3.4 Local impact assessment report completed and verified
3.4.1 The consultant will review and analyse data and findings from the local impact assessment and write report.
3.4.2 The consultant will organise workshop with key stakeholders to verify findings from local impact assessment
Result 4: Identification of company measures to prevent child labour
The consultant will assess companies' due diligence processes in place to address child labour. The assessment will include an analysis of companies' grievance mechanisms, KPIs on child labour, monitoring systems, responsible teams within the company, allocated budget, annual plans and targets, as well as collaboration with other value chain partners. We will identify the strengths and weaknesses of these systems if they are being effectively implemented and complied with. This will show to what extent strategies to overcome current child labour problems can make use of these existing management systems. Having mapped existing initiatives by service providers (non-governmental organizations mainly) working on child labour issues and its root causes under Result 1, we will identify to what extent these initiatives could be linked with companies measures to prevent and mitigate child labour.
Based on findings from internal company assessments and field research conducted under Result 3, recommendations will be developed on how to improve Due Diligence systems of participating companies
The consultant is required to complete a final report including findings, analysis and recommendations.
Sub-results & Activities
4.1 Internal company assessments completed
4.1.1 The consultant will conduct KIIs with key representatives of Peet's, Mercon and Mercon Guatemala to better understand existing due diligence processes in place to address child labour, how these are implemented and what impact they have had to date. The assessment will include an analysis of companies' grievance mechanisms, KPIs on child labour, monitoring systems, responsible teams within the company, allocated budget, annual plans and targets, as well as collaboration with other value chain partners. Lessons from this assessment will feed into the development of recommendations for companies to strengthen their due diligence processes under 4.2.
This assessment will also study the overlap and differences between the Due Diligence systems of Mercon B.V. and Peet’s Coffee.
4.2 Recommendations for companies developed
4.2.1 Consultant will identify how findings from internal company assessments and field research conducted under Result 3 can be incorporated into internal practices of participating companies, such as Peet’s risk assessment, procedures for global coffee sourcing and purchasing practices, Mercon’s risk assessments, and any other activities to tackle child labour and promote opportunities for children from ethnic minorities.
Result 5: Drafting project B for the implementation of intervention activities to address child labor risks and root causes of child labor.
Under Result 5, consultant will engage with key stakeholders in the landscape to discuss possible interventions in Project B, based on the research findings from Project A. Because this is a landscape approach, it will be essential to ensure project team maintains all stakeholder involvement and commitment to address root causes. Agreed interventions will be captured in a proposal for the implementation of activities in Project B, which, if approved, would be implemented in 2023-2026.
Sub-results & Activities
5.1 Project B Proposal developed and submitted
5.1.1. Consultant will organise the presentation of & discussion about findings from impact study with local government officials and relevant local stakeholders within the landscape, to jointly agree on proposed activities to remediate and prevent child labour as part of Project B.
5.1.2 The consultant will develop proposal for Project B, based on findings from local impact assessment and consultations with key stakeholders in the landscape, especially with the aim to address the identified root causes and make use of existing management systems and service provision initiatives that are effective.
Data collection for the Local Impact Assessment should be planned during the harvest season in November 2022 - February 2023.
The study should be designed to produce high quality data in a relatively short time frame.
Your proposal should detail your study design, timeline, key researchers and previous experience, including links to previous similar work. It should also detail your experience working with ethnic minorities and/or indigenous communities in Guatemala and language skills of your team.
Please provide a detailed budget outlining all costs incurred to carry out the Local Impact research (Project A).
Submission & Eligibility
Please send any additional questions regarding this consultancy to Alejandro Santos: firstname.lastname@example.org
Please send your proposal including budget through this platform by the 28 August 2022
We welcome proposals by Guatemalan research and development institutes with expertise in coffee and social topic.